Human beings need a regular supply of food and water and an essentially continuous supply of air. The requirements for air and water are relatively constant (10–20 m3 and 1–2 litres per day, respectively). That all people should have free access to air of acceptable quality is a fundamental right. However, while enjoying the robust development and prolific production of our economies, we are subsequently facing the devastating consequences. Among all the problems, air pollution is the largest single environmental risk for health, recognized by the World Health Assembly (WHA) Resolution of May 2015 as being of major public health concern.